Het ontstaan van Hiphop

Cultuur Reageer

HipHopVanmorgen las ik in de krant een artikel waarin staat dat een Amsterdamse politiechef geweld-incidenten associeert met de muziekstroming Hiphop. Hij is niet de eerste die een verband legt tussen geweld in muziek, videoclips, films en computerspellen. Er is echter is nog nergens bewezen dat dit het geval is. Enkele bekende Nederlandse hiphoppers hebben met een open brief gereageerd. Zij stellen dat de politiechef het verband alleen legt vanwege een gebrekkige kennis van de muziekstroming. En hij is niet de enige. Wat is hiphop? Hoe is hiphop ontstaan? Wat proberen hiphoppers uit te dragen?

Ontstaan
In de jaren ‘70 was de Bronx in New York al een zeer arme wijk. Hier werd ook wel naar verwezen als een ghetto of no-go area. In deze periode heerste een economische crisis, vooral in de middenklasse. De meeste mensen woonden in slechte woningen en in onveilige buurten. Ze hadden weinig geld. Het merendeel van de bevolking in de Bronx was Afro-Amerikaans of Hispaans. Er ontstond een steeds groter onderscheid tussen zwart en blank, en arm en rijk.

De jongeren in deze buurten waren niet thuis in de populaire en positieve glamour, jeugdcultuur en disco. Ze bevonden zich buiten op straat. Ze zochten een andere manier om zich te uiten. Eind jaren ‘70 vonden de jongeren in de Bronx een manier om dat te doen, hiphop. Hiervan stamt ook de hiphop van vandaag nog af. Met het ontstaan van hiphop wordt de kunstvorm graffiti ook ineens populair. Op straat verschijnen de meest uiteenlopende kunstwerken. Deze zijn niet te vergelijken met de teksten die tegenwoordig op de muren van gebouwen en langs wegen worden gespoten.

breakdanceBreakdance
Ongeveer tegelijk met hiphop ontstond de dansvorm breakdance. Vooral de muziek van Herc Kool en Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five waren hierbij populair. In het begin werd naar breakdancers verwezen als b-boys, ofwel break-boys of boogie boys. Een b-boy was iemand die op de beat van de DJ, unieke dansbewegingen laat zien in het midden van een cirkel mensen. De break in de benaming duidt erop dat een danser zijn bewegingen laat samenhangen met onderbrekingen in de muziek. De oorsprong van de dansbewegingen is onbekend. Een aantal onderzoekers stelt dat ze zijn voortgekomen uit dansvormen als de Charleston en Lindy.

Tijdens de crisis eind jaren ‘70 waren breakdance en hiphop niet alleen dans en muziekvormen, maar werden ze gebruikt als vervanging voor geweld tussen rivaliserende bendes. Iedere bende zocht een breaker uit en die dansten tegen elkaar. Degene met de beste bewegingen won. Zo werden conflicten geweldloos opgelost.

Breakdance leidde tot verschillende groepen, waaronder Bambaata’s Universal Zulu Nation en Rock Steady Crew. Breakdance kreeg ook steeds meer invloeden vanuit de acrobatiek, waardoor de bewegingen veel dynamischer werden. Deze vorm van dansen of bewegingen uit deze vorm van breakdance wordt nog steeds veelvuldig uitgevoerd, zoals headspins (draaien op je hoofd)en backspins (draaien op de rug met de benen ingetrokken) etc.

Ook nu is breakdance nog een uitingsvorm voor jongeren die niet weten hoe ze zich moeten opstellen in de maatschappij. Regelmatig worden er breakdance en hiphop evenementen georganiseerd om probleemjongeren van de straat te halen, vaak met succes. Daarnaast is deze stroming uitgegroeid tot een ware en geaccepteerde kunstvorm. Denk hierbij bijvoorbeeld aan de dansgroep ‘Ish‘.

furiousfiveHiphop in Nederland
Halverwege de jaren ‘80 bereikt hiphop ook Nederland, met name de hier wonende donkere jongeren. In het begin wordt het voornamelijk gezien als vrolijke dansmuziek, maar later wordt het ook gebruikt als protest tegen de samenleving. Dit met name door Surinamers en Antillianen, die in de bestaande maatschappij geen eigen identiteit konden vormen. Veel allochtone jongeren waren in de jaren ‘80 en ‘90 werkloos en voelden zich buitengesloten van de maatschappij. Hiphop en andere rapmuziek gaf hen een eigen identiteit. Ze vonden het een nuttige manier van vrijetijdsbesteding.

Toen hiphop Nederland net had bereikt werd er voornamelijk in het Engels gerapt. Pas eind jaren ‘90 sloeg de Nederpop aan bij het grote publiek. J Def Rhymes was de eerste Nederhopper. In diezelfde periode kreeg de mix van hiphop en reggea van Postman ook veel aandacht. Daarnaast had Saskia Slegers van het Eindhovense label Djax veel invloed op de ontvangst van hiphop. Zijn contracteerde onder andere de bands bands Osdorp Posse, 24K, Kay LC, White Wolf en de Spookrijders. Zij bracht de muziekstroming onder de aandacht bij het grote publiek.

Deze ontwikkeling had ook een groot nadeel. Er ontstonden vooroordelen van mensen die de muziek niet begrepen en het als agressief beschouwden. Terwijl de boodschap juist het tegenovergestelde was. Jongeren wilden een eigen identiteit, ook in moeilijke tijden. Een manier om zichzelf van de straat te houden en hiermee werd geweld juist voorkomen.

Ook een keer een breakdance-event bijwonen. Bezoek dan deze website: http://www.ish-events.com/
Bekijk voor optredens van hiphop-bands de links in de tekst.

Bronnen: http://www.socsci.ru.nl/jeugdcultuur/index.php/Geschiedenis_hiphop
De ‘Spits’ van 26-08-2009

72 Reacties op “Het ontstaan van Hiphop”

  1. Jesse Timmermans Says:

    Hallo, Ik heb uw verhaal gelezen over het zogenaamde ontstaan van hiphop. Ik moet u melden dat u uw bronnen eens goed moet nalezen als het gaat om het onstaan van hiphop in Nederland. Want hier klopt in feite niks van. Ik zou het nog eens goed nakijken!

    Mvg,

    Jesse Timmermans

  2. Peter Says:

    Leuk en interessant artikel ..!

    @Jesse Timmermans: Kun je dan ook aangeven ‘wat’ er ‘in feite’ niet klopt…? En de bron ‘Spits’ lijkt me redelijk betrouwbaar ..

  3. Melanie (12 jaar) Says:

    Heel intressant!
    Gelukkig dat ik dezen site gevonden heb!
    Ik hou namelijk me spreekbeurt over hiphop!
    &ik zit zelf ook op hiphop!
    Echt heel leuk is het!

    Doeei !

  4. Raël Says:

    Vet dom. Ik kan geen informatie hiervan af halen.

  5. Henk Says:

    Ik heb vroeger (20 jaar of langer geleden) geruchten gehoord dat Hiphop in Nederland zijn ontstaan, totaal niet zijn aangeslagen, maar wel naar Amerika te zijn overgewaaid waar het een groot succes werd, en vervolgens terugwaaide naar Nederland. Dit is zelfs een keer op de radio geweest.(waar, wanneer en wie? geen idee)
    Wie heeft dit gerucht (destijds)ook gehoord, en weet hier meer over te vertellen?

  6. Anna Says:

    Nou, hier bij hiphop.. Zit ik zelf ook op..
    Staat dat het in nederland is ontstaan..
    Maar weer bij google staat dat het in Afrika is ontstaan?..
    Weetje ik snap er nix van..xd

  7. Meike, 11 jaar Says:

    Ik wil ff zeggen dat deze bron wel klopt, ik heb het bij meerdere bronnen gechekt. Ook wil ik zeggen dat ik blij ben met deze informatie, en het me echt geholpen heeft met het maken van mijn spreekbeurt over HipHop. Zelf zit ik ook in de selectie, en mijn dansschool is wereld kampioen, dus weet ik ZEKER dat dit waar is.
    ciaooxx

  8. jeffrey Says:

    Ik heb dat van Nederland gelezen en ik zal als een van de pioniers van de hiphop in Nederland ff wat toelichten!!
    Hip hop is niet halverwege de jaren 80 overgekomen vanuit U.S.A naar Nederland,maar al van af eind 70 begin 80.
    Ik ben zelf in 80 begonnen met hiphop.

  9. sandra Says:

    Ik vind dat je hele goede informatie heb verteld en dat heb ik gebruikt en nu heb ik een 10 vooor mijn werkstuk

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